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In the NFL, balancing technology with tradition.
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The annual analytics contest explores statistical innovations in football — how the game is played and coached.
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Creating an NFL player: from “everyman” to “superman.”
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A look at the programs and services NFL Player Engagement provides to assist every player before, during and after his football career.
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Every week, officials take the field ready to put months of preparation, training and hard work on display, knowing that the whole world — and the Officiating Department — is watching.
Officiating an NFL game takes years of training and experience.
NFL Football Operations protects the integrity of the game by ensuring that the rules and the officiating are consistent and fair to all competitors.
The custodians of football not only have protected its integrity, but have also revised its playing rules to protect the players, and to make the games fairer and more entertaining.
The NFL Video Rulebook explains NFL rules with video examples.
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The NFL's procedures for breaking ties for postseason playoffs.
The NFL's familiar hand signals help fans better understand the game.
A quick reference guide to the NFL rulebook.
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See where the players line up in pro football's most common offensive and defensive formations.
Understand what the graphics on NFL television broadcasts mean and how they can help you get the most out of watching NFL games.
The NFL’s instant replay review process focuses on expediting instant replay reviews and ensuring consistency. Learn how it works.
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Welcome to the Extra Point, where members of the NFL's football data and analytics team will share updates on league-wide trends in football data, interesting visualizations that showcase innovative ways to use the league's data, and provide an inside look at how the NFL uses data-driven insight to improve and monitor player and team performance.
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Q. When does the 2019 free agency signing period begin?
A. At 4 p.m. ET on Wednesday, March 13.
Q. When does the two-day negotiating period for potential unrestricted free agents begin?
A. At 12 p.m. ET on Monday, March 11 until 3:59:59 p.m. ET on Wednesday, March 13, clubs are permitted to contact and enter into contract negotiations with the certified agents of players who will become unrestricted free agents upon expiration of their 2018 player contracts at 4 p.m. ET on March 13.
Q. What are the categories of free agency?
A. Players are either “restricted free agents” or “unrestricted free agents.” A restricted free agent may be subject to a “qualifying offer.” A restricted or unrestricted free agent may be designated by his prior club as its franchise player or transition player.
Q. What is the time period for free agency signings this year?
A. For restricted free agents — March 13 to April 19.
For unrestricted free agents who have received the May 7 tender from their prior club, from March 13 to July 22 (or the first scheduled day of the first NFL training camp, whichever is later).
For franchise players, from March 13 until the Tuesday following Week 10 of the regular season, Nov. 12.
For transition players, from March 13 until July 22. After July 22 and until 4 p.m. ET on the Tuesday following Week 10 of the regular season, Nov. 12, the prior club has exclusive negotiating rights to unrestricted free agents and transition players. If the above-listed players do not sign by Nov. 12, they must sit out the season.
Q. What is the difference between a restricted free agent and an unrestricted free agent?
A. In the 2019 league year, players with three accrued seasons who have received a qualifying offer become restricted free agents when their contracts expire at the conclusion of the 2018 league year on March 13.
Unrestricted free agents have completed four or more accrued seasons. Upon expiration of his 2018 contract, an unrestricted free agent is free to sign with any club with no draft choice compensation owed to his old club.
Q. What constitutes an “accrued season”?
A. Six or more regular-season games on a club's active/inactive, reserve/injured or reserve/physically unable to perform lists.
Q. How do the free agency rules apply to restricted free agents?
A. If a player with three accrued seasons has received a “qualifying offer” — a salary tender predetermined by the CBA — from his old club, he can negotiate with any club through April 19.
If the restricted free agent signs an offer sheet with a new club, his old club can match the offer and keep him because they have a right of first refusal on any offer sheet the player signs. If the old club does not match the offer, it may receive draft choice compensation depending on the amount of its qualifying offer.
If an offer sheet is not executed on or before April 19, the player’s negotiating rights revert exclusively to his old club. Before the start of free agency, a player who would otherwise be a restricted free agent may be designated by his old club as its franchise player or transition player.
Q. What are the right of first refusal/qualifying offer amounts for players who have completed three accrued seasons?
A. For right of first refusal only, a one-year salary of at least $2,025,000.
For right of first refusal and compensation at the player’s original draft round, a one-year salary of at least $2,025,000 or 110 percent of the 2018 Paragraph 5 salary, whichever is greater.
For right of first refusal and compensation of one second-round draft selection, a one-year salary of at least $3,095,000 or 110 percent of the 2018 Paragraph 5 salary, whichever is greater.
For right of first refusal and compensation of one first-round draft selection, a one-year salary of at least $4,407,000 or 110 percent of the 2018 Paragraph 5 salary, whichever is greater.
For right of first refusal and compensation of only one first-round draft selection, but any provision in the new club’s offer sheet waiving or limiting the new club’s ability to designate the player as a franchise or transition player is not a principal term and need not be matched by the prior club, a one-year salary of at least $4,907,000 or 110 percent of the 2018 Paragraph 5 salary, whichever is greater.
Q. What determines an unrestricted free agent?
A. A player with four or more accrued seasons whose contract has expired. He is free to sign with any club — with no draft choice compensation owed to his old club — through July 22 or the first scheduled day of the first NFL training camp, whichever is later. His negotiating rights revert exclusively to his old club if by May 7 the old club tendered the player a one-year contract for 110 percent of his prior year’s salary. His old club then has until the Tuesday following Week 10 of the regular season (Nov. 12) to sign him. If he does not sign by that date, he must sit out the season. If no tender is offered by May 7, the player can be signed by any club at any time throughout the season.
Q. What determines a franchise player?
A. The salary offer by a player’s club determines what type of franchise player he is: exclusive or non-exclusive.
An exclusive franchise player — not free to sign with another club — is offered the greater of the average of the top five salaries at the player's position for the current year as of the end of the restricted free agent signing period on April 19; or the amount of the required tender for a non-exclusive franchise player, as explained below.
Article 10, Section 2(a)(i) of the CBA sets the Cap Percentage Average for calculating the required tender for a non-exclusive franchise player:
The Nonexclusive Franchise Tender shall be a one-year player contract for the greater of:
1. The average of the five largest prior year salaries for players at the player’s position. The average shall be calculated by:
2. Or, 120% of the player’s prior year salary
If a club extends a required tender to a non-exclusive franchise player, the player can negotiate a contract with any club, except that his old club can receive compensation of two first-round draft selections if he signs with a new club.
Q. How many franchise players and transition players can a team designate each season?
A. A club can designate one franchise player or one transition player among its potential restricted or unrestricted free agents.
Q. Can a club decide to withdraw its franchise or transition designation on a player?
A. Yes. A club can withdraw its franchise or transition designation. The player then becomes an unrestricted free agent, either immediately if the tender is withdrawn after the start of the 2019 league year, or when his 2018 contract expires if the tender is withdrawn before the start of the 2019 league year.
Q. What is the salary cap for 2019?
A. The salary cap is $188,200,000 per club.
Q. When must teams be in compliance with the salary cap?
A. At the start of the 2019 league year, which begins at 4 p.m. ET on Wednesday, March 13.
Q. If a team is under the salary cap at the end of a given season, can the team “carry over” room to the next season?
A. Yes. A team may carry over room from one league year to the following league year by submitting notice to the NFL prior to 4 p.m. ET on the day following the team’s final regular-season game, indicating the amount of room that the club wishes to carry over.
Q. What is the maximum amount of room that a club can carry over?
A. A club can carry over 100 percent of its remaining 2018 room to its adjusted salary cap for 2019.