The Rooney Rule

The Rooney Rule encourages hiring best practices to foster and provide opportunity to diverse leadership throughout the NFL.

The Rooney Rule is one part of the NFL’s effort to develop a deep, sustainable talent pool at all levels of the organization. The policy promotes diverse leadership among NFL clubs to ensure that promising candidates have the opportunity to prove they have the necessary skills and qualifications to excel.

Through hiring best practices, the Rooney Rule aims to increase the number of minorities hired in head coach, general manager, and executive positions. This diversity enriches the game and creates a more effective, quality organization from top to bottom.


The NFL adopted the Rooney Rule in 2003 based on recommendations made by the league’s Workplace Diversity Committee, now known as the Diversity Equity and Inclusion (DEI) Committee. It was named after then-chairman of the committee, Dan Rooney, the late owner of the Pittsburgh Steelers. 

The committee’s initial focus was on the historically low number of minorities in head coaching positions. The policy originally required every team with a head coaching vacancy to interview at least one or more diverse candidates before making a new hire.

Over the years, the Rooney Rule has expanded to include a greater number of positions across NFL clubs.

Following the 2022 Spring League Meeting, the Rooney Rule was expanded to include women as a part of the minority candidate definition and also include the QB coach position. NFL teams are now required to interview at least two minority candidates for vacant head coach, GM and coordinator positions. One minority candidate is required for the QB coach position. With many prospective head coaches beginning their careers in the QB room, the ruling is expected to help increase the hiring of diverse head coaches in the future.

In 2021, the NFL approved changes requiring every team to interview at least two external minority candidates in person for open head coach and GM positions and at least two external minority candidates — in person or virtual — for a coordinator job. Additionally, at least one minority and/or female candidate must be interviewed for senior level positions (e.g., club president and senior executives).

In November 2020, team owners approved a proposal rewarding teams who developed minority talent that went on to become GMs or head coaches across the league. If a team lost a minority executive or coach to another team, that team would receive a third-round compensatory pick for two years. If a team lost both a coach and personnel member, it would receive a third-round compensatory pick for three years.

In 2009, the policy was amended to include general manager and primary football executive jobs, requiring each team to interview a minimum of two external minority candidates.

Strengthening the Rooney Rule

In recent years, the DEI Committee has proposed additional changes to strengthen the Rooney Rule, including:

  • Clubs must conduct an in-person interview with at least two external diverse — minority and/or female — candidates for any GM or head coaching interview.
  • Clubs must interview at least two minorities and/or women for all coordinator positions.
  • Clubs must interview a least one diverse candidate for the QB coach position or any senior level executive position at the club.

NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell stated that the updates “bolster the current Rooney Rule requirements and are intended to create additional opportunities for diverse candidates to be identified, interviewed, and ultimately hired when a vacancy becomes available.”

The committee also supported new accountability measures to ensure that all teams follow the procedures outlined in the rule.

NFL Diversity and Inclusion Efforts

Jennifer King, the first African-American female full-time coach in NFL history, is an alumna of the NFL Women's Forum. (AP/Mark Tenally)

Jennifer King, the first African-American female full-time coach in NFL history, is an alumna of the NFL Women's Forum. (AP/Mark Tenally)

The Rooney Rule is one of several leaguewide efforts to promote diversity and inclusion on and off the field: